Sunday, January 20, 2019

Folk Tale Secret Stash: The Flute


This Folk Tale Secret Stash is going to be a little bit different.  It’s going to highlight a less well-known folk tale (at least in America), but it’s also going to focus on a specific topic.

But first, the story.

The story of “The Flute” is a Japanese folk tale about a man from Yedo who loses his wife and remarries to another woman.  However, the man doesn’t know that his new wife is vile and black-hearted and that she holds a particular hatred for the man’s young daughter Oyone.  The day comes when the man is set to take a long trip to Kyoto, one set to last for months.  Before he goes, Oyone gives him a small flute made of bamboo.  While in Kyoto, he gets wrapped up in his life and work there and forgets all about the little flute.  Then one day, it falls out of the sleeve of one of his kimonos.  When he plays the flute he hears the voice of his daughter saying “Come back to Yedo.  Come back to Yedo.”  Feeling a great sense of foreboding, the man rushed back to Yedo as fast as he could.  When he met with his wife he asked where his child was, but she tried to elude his question.  Finally, she answered “In the bamboo grove”.  The man went to the bamboo grove and searched but couldn’t find her.  Then he put the flute to his lips and played.  From the flute came his child’s voice saying this: “Father, dear father, my wicked stepmother killed me.  Three moons since she killed me.  She buried me in the clearing of the bamboo grove.  You may find my bones.  As for me, you will never see me anymore- you will never see me more . . .”  The man then took his sword and avenged his child on his murderous wife.  Then he dressed himself in the manner of a pilgrim and undertook a journey to all the holy places in Japan.  And for the rest of his life he carried that bamboo flute with him.
I usually don’t give away endings like that.  However, this time I had to do it.  You see, that’s what we’re going to talk about here.  Endings and how they work in fairy tales and what they contribute.

I find that Japanese folk tales have a real way with unhappy endings.  There’s a strange sense of acceptance that comes from them.  Even when it seems like certain things are left unfinished.  The thing is that there’s a certain mode of thought in Japanese culture, possibly because of spiritual traditions, that acknowledges the impermanence of things.  Many things in this world are fleeting and that’s just part of life.

We tend to fuss about the concept of endings in fairy tales.  The concept of the “happy ending” and the phrase “happily ever after” loom large over the concept of the fairy tale.  When people try to play up the fact that European fairy tales, mainly the Grimm ones, people have a tendency of saying how there “weren’t as many happy endings as you think” or something like that.

How much does an ending contribute to a story’s tone?

Now, there are two stories from the Grimms’ collection that kind of remind me of “The Flute”.  One, with its music from beyond the grave is “The Singing Bone”.  The other, because of its murderous stepmother is “The Juniper Tree”.  These are two of the more infamous stories coming out of Grimm.  “The Singing Bone” is the story of one man who kills his younger brother and marries the princess that had been promised to him.  The crime goes undiscovered for years until a shepherd finds one of the younger brother’s bones and carves it into a mouthpiece for his horn.  When he plays, the horn tells the whole story of the crime that was committed.  The shepherd brings the horn before the king, who understands the bone’s song and has the older brother executed as punishment.  The younger brother’s bones are dug up and buried in a churchyard.  “The Juniper Tree” is the story of a stepmother who kills her stepson, pins blame for the crime on her own daughter and makes blood puddings out of the body and feeds them to her husband.  The murdered boy then comes back as a bird out of the magical juniper tree, gives gifts to his father and sister and kills his stepmother.  The bird then turns back into a boy.
So, we have two tales here filled with murder and mayhem.  Yet, in a way they both have happy, or at least, positive endings.  In “The Singing Bone” the younger brother is still dead, but for a little while it seems like the older brother is going to get away with it.  In the end, it’s at least nice to see the crime exposed and justice carried out.  “The Juniper Tree” on the other hand, returns the murdered boy to life after all the murder has been done.  Then we compare them to “The Flute” which has a negative ending, but to me doesn’t feel as dark or troubling as either of those other tales.
I think the problem we have when we approach folk and fairy tales is that they’re so often reduced down to a dichotomy of tone.  Stories get classified as either “light” or “dark”.  However, there is such a range of emotion to be felt in these stories.  “The Singing Bone” is shocking at the point where the older brother kills the younger one.  However, there’s a feeling of righteous triumph when the killer is exposed and punished for his crimes.  “The Juniper Tree” feels shocking throughout but then tries to at least end on a high note by bringing the murdered victim back to life.  “The Flute”, however, is just sad.
The death of the daughter feels like it’s being built to from the beginning, so it doesn’t feel particularly shocking.  The vengeance taken on the stepmother also isn’t shocking, because in this particular story from this particular time and culture, it seems like the only possible punishment.  In the end, you’re only left with the father and his broken heart as he begins his pilgrimage.
I think that stories are more than their endings.  Summing them up as “light” or “dark” or categorizing them because they have a “happy ending” or “unhappy ending”, just feels kind of limiting.

If you’d like to read “The Flute” and other Japanese fairy tales, you can find them on Fairytalez.com along with stories from a number of other public domain texts.  Until next time . . . well, let’s just say this definitely isn’t the end. 

Saturday, December 22, 2018

Fantasy Literature Rewind: Mary Poppins.


You feel that?  The wind just changed!  That means it’s time to talk about the one and only Mary Poppins.

Now, this is another one that’s not a fairy tale.  However, it is fairy tale adjacent in a number of places.  I also realize that this is a subject that can be a bit loaded when it comes to adaptation, the wishes of the original author and what the limits should be for what an estate can do with a property after the author dies.  But we’ll have to save our thoughts on that for the end.

Let’s start with some background.  Mary Poppins is the star of a series of books by author P.L. Travers.  There are eight books in the series, the first one published in 1934 and the last in 1988.  The books revolve around the various exploits of mysterious and magical nanny Mary Poppins as she cares for the four, later five, Banks children.  I have read four of the eight books written by Travers (coincidentally, these are the four that were written before Disney made their famous film version).  They are, in order: Mary Poppins, Mary Poppins Comes Back, Mary Poppins Opens the Door and Mary Poppins in the Park.
Mary Poppins admiring her reflection.
Mary Poppins as a character might be a little bit different than you’d expect if you only know the Julie Andrews version.  She’s a strict, no nonsense nanny who doesn’t much appreciate disobedience, lollygagging or back-talk.  She’s described as having shiny black hair and blue eyes and is said to look like “a Dutch doll”.  She must have been fond of these doll-like looks, because she is also described as extremely vain.  She loves to admire herself in mirrors.  So, what’s the big deal about this strict, no-nonsense narcissist?  Well, she’s magic.  If you saw the Disney movie, you probably expected that.  However, it’s not just that she’s magic, it’s that everything around her is as well.  Wherever Mary seems to take the Banks children (Jane, Michael, John, Barbara and little Annabel), the children and the reader seem to get a glimpse into a magical world that exists hidden within our own.  They might go to a gingerbread shop where the foil stars they decorate the gingerbread with are actual stars.  A statue in the park may come to life.  Everyone’s shadow may run off to a Halloween dance.  The balloon lady in the park may sell you a magic balloon that takes you flying.  Or you may find out that the lazy servant that works for your family is actually the Dirty Rascal of nursery rhyme fame (“I’m the king of the castle and you’re the Dirty Rascal”).  Whether or not Mary Poppins seems to have any control over these events varies.  Sometimes she brings the children right into the path of the magical happenings and other times the magic finds her and she gets rather perturbed by it.  However these magical things show up, it always feels like the magic was always there, but somehow no one could see it before.  Either way, don’t ask Mary Poppins herself about it because she will deny everything and act like she’s never been so insulted in all her life.
Mary Poppins with Jane and Michael.
Now, here’s the thing about Mary Poppins’s tight-lipped nature.  It kind of gives her an air of mystery.  Every magical person she meets seems to know and respect her (well, barring the Dirty Rascal when it comes to respect).  Sometimes they even suggest that Mary is somehow special among them.  Not like a queen or an official of any kind.  Just special by the virtue that she’s Mary Poppins.  However, Mary never explains what kind of past she has with these characters.  In fact, she never explains anything.  So, at least if you’re like me, you find yourself wondering who she is and where she comes from.
Tea with Mary's uncle, Mr. Albert Wigg
None of the books have an overarching story.  Instead, they contain a number of self-contained short stories.  However, there is something of a pattern to the books.  All the books I read had a story in which they visit one of Mary’s relatives.  All of them had one in which Jane and Michael had to sneak out after dark in order to see what Mary Poppins was doing on her night off.  All of them had a story in which Mary Poppins tells the children a story that relates to some strange event that just happened.  Almost all of them have at least one story that takes place on a holiday, and the books also had stories in which either Jane or Michael were in a bad mood and were acting out on it.  There were also Mary Poppins’s rather spectacular entrances and exits, though Travers stopped writing those after the third book because, to paraphrase a quote from her, she cannot be forever coming and going.  However, in between the formulaic bits, sometimes there’s something rather sad or beautiful.  I’m reminded of a story in the first book in which Jane and Michael go off to a party and the twin babies John and Barbara are left with Mary Poppins.  What we find out is that John and Barbara can speak in their way and they can understand the languages of everything else: the starling and the wind and the sunlight and many other things.  They also think grown-ups are quite stupid because they can’t.  We also find out they understand because they are so young and that everyone can understand those things up until their first birthday.  Everyone forgets at that point whether they want too or not.  Everyone except Mary Poppins, the Great Exception.  Sure enough, a few months later, the starling finds that John and Barbara are no longer able to understand him.  The simple idea of being able to understand the language of everything is kind of beautiful, and the inevitability of losing it is rather sad.  There are also some choice quotes that have a sort of depth and beauty to them.  Another story finds Jane and Michael sneaking out to the zoo at night where they meet a hamadryad (i.e. a cobra) who tells them this: “We are all made of the same stuff, remember, we of the Jungle, you of the City.  The same substance composes us- the tree overhead, the stone beneath us, the bird, the beast, the star- we are all one, all moving to the same end.  Remember that when you no longer remember me, my child.”  It makes some sense, though.  Travers was rather fascinated with the symbolism and metaphor that’s often seen in fairy tales and myths.  The supposed hidden depths in simple stories.  Much of her later work focused on it.  It finds its way into Mary Poppins too.  In Mary Poppins in the Park there’s a story in which Jane and Michael meet three princes who escape from The Silver Fairy Book (clearly a fictitious Andrew Lang collection).  They and their pet unicorn encounter some trouble from various people, the park keeper, the policeman, the zoo keeper and the curator of the museum.  However, when the adults finally realize who the princes are their attitude changes.  They start talking about how they had once known them when they were little children and had lost track of them.  This makes sense, because they would have read that fairy tale a fairly long time ago when they were children.  However, there’s another layer to this.  The princes’ names are Florimond, Veritain and Amor.  Loosely translated, their names mean Beauty, Truth and Love.  The adults knew beauty, truth and love as children but lost contact with it as they grew up.  That’s kind of a big metaphor right there.

It’s stuff like this that didn’t make it into Mary Poppins’s more famous cinematic adaptation.  The metaphorical aspects are lost.  The idea of the magic always being there just beyond the surface layer is lost.  The idea that babies know the secrets of the universe but they can’t tell you is lost (as are the characters of John and Barbara entirely).  However, it kind of makes sense when you consider the fact that in being translated from book to movie, it was also translated from being a piece of European fantasy to a piece of American fantasy.  Now, nothing against American fantasy.  American fantasy stories have their own strengths.  For example, American fantasy stories tend to be a lot more free from the constraints of social class which seeps into a lot of European fantasy stories.  We’ll put the metaphor issue aside for now, because a lot of that comes down to individual perception.  However, the other issue still stands.  European and particularly English fantasy stories have more a sense of “deep magic” to them.  The feeling that the magic is there, in the hills and the stones and the trees and you could see it if you just had the means.  Their ancestors could access it, so why can’t they?  American fantasy, maybe because it’s a newish country and maybe because it’s a colonized country, generally doesn’t have that.

I should mention that not everything in these books is so great by modern standards.  There’s some casual racism thrown around.  Mary Poppins sometimes tells Michael that he shouldn’t “act like a red Indian” when he’s misbehaving.  In fact, one of the stories in the first book had suck overt racism that it had to be changed (I’ve read an earlier edition too).  A story that consisted of Mary and the children traveling around the world with a magic compass and meeting an Eskimo (now more appropriately called an Inuit, but Travers’s words, not mine), an African tribesman, a Mandarin and a "red Indian" (again, not my words) got turned into a trip to meet a polar bear, a macaw, a panda and a dolphin instead.
Mary Poppins descends on a kite string
However, back to the issue of the Disney movie.  I think maybe it’s time to address that particular elephant in the room.  Mary Poppins Returns comes out this week and the question comes up: should this movie have been made?  It’s not a secret that P.L. Travers hated the original Mary Poppins movie.  Absolutely hated it.  She hated it so much that she put a stipulation in her will that Mary Poppins should never be made into a movie again.  However, years after her death, Disney goes to the Travers estate and despite that stipulation makes a deal to create a sequel.  On one hand, Travers made it very explicit that she didn’t want her character used in another movie.  On the other hand, the Travers estate was essentially sitting on an intellectual property that has a lot of potential.  Sure, the books might still sell okay.  However, licensing is currently the biggest way to make money from an IP, especially children’s characters.  There’s also the fact that the damage has already been done.  The original movie is already more famous than the books. Looking back at the original attempt by Disney and Travers, it’s hard to tell who was being more unfair.  Sure, Disney changed a lot of things that Travers didn’t want changed.  That’s nothing new.  Hollywood does that all the time and it sucks.  But Travers didn’t come out smelling like a rose either.  She was a notoriously touchy, anxious woman who had a lot of baggage in her past.  She would hand out seemingly arbitrary rules to the filmmakers like “Mary Poppins should never wear red”.  One wonders if maybe she were trying to find a way to keep the movie from being made while simultaneously accepting Disney’s money (she was in financial straits at the time).  And to some extent, Travers’s stipulation just feels like a stall anyway.  In the long run (a very, VERY long run thanks to Disney, but that’s another story) the character and her stories will enter the public domain eventually and Poppins is well-known and beloved enough that people will make movies about her.  Some will draw on the Disney interpretation.  Others will try hard to stick to “the author’s original vision” and use it as a selling point.  But barring major law changes or some kind of cataclysm, it’s likely to happen.

Mary Poppins Returns comes out and though part of me thinks I shouldn’t see it because of Travers’s wishes, my curiosity is piqued and won’t leave me alone.  I want to see what parts of these four books make it into the movie.  I’m even more curious after seeing the trailers, which show that Emily Blunt has more of a handle on the literary Mary Poppins’s attitude and personality than Andrews did (you have to love that “damn, I look good” look Blunt gives to the mirror in that one part).  I’m also not expecting Travers’s wishes to stop anyone else from  seeing Mary Poppins Returns, but if you’re going to see the movie you should also check out the books.  I’m not going to say they’re “practically perfect in every way”, but they’re pretty good and deserve a read.

Sunday, December 16, 2018

Fairy Tale Media Fix: Snow Queen musical.


It’s not often I get to go see live theater.  It’s also rare that the theater I get to watch has subject matter that dovetails perfectly with the subject of this blog.  So, imagine how my interest was piqued when I found out that a local university theater institute was putting on a musical based on Hans Christian Andersen’s “The Snow Queen”.
Now, I had known about the development of this musical already.  The people who first staged it even followed me on Twitter.  However, I had never thought I would actually be able to see a performance of it.  But then, there it was on an ad on the local PBS affiliate.  So, with curiosity poking at me, I purchased one ticket for a performance of The Snow Queen at The Theater Institute at Sage.

Now, I probably don’t have to tell you folks the story of “The Snow Queen”.  It’s about a girl named Gerda who goes on a journey to find her friend Kai after he was both infected by a tiny shard of evil magic mirror and was then taken away by the Snow Queen.  Now, I have gone on the record before as saying I’m not particularly fond of the works of Hans Christian Andersen.  It’s not so much that I dislike sad endings, which Andersen often uses.  It’s that his work can come across as kind of preachy and overly sentimental (“mawkish” is a word I’ve heard someone use to describe it).  However, I’m sure we all have at least one tale collector or writer that we’re just not crazy about.  But anyway, the story of “The Snow Queen” (and to a lesser extent “The Emperor’s New Clothes”) is the exception.
The auditorium at the Theater Institute is a small venue.  The set was rather sparsely decorated and the props and costumes were a bit catch-as-catch-can.  It was the kind of performance that you need to bring a lot of imagination to.  And yet, I liked it.  For a little university show put together on a shoestring, it was pretty good.  The main purpose of the show was probably to get some drama students up and performing in front of an audience, which it did.  Those students also committed to the show and their parts, despite how lacking the production values might have been.

In terms of how well the show adapted the source material . . . Well, it was a mixed bag.  I liked a lot of it.  Gerda was well-played as the determined and caring little girl she always was.  The depiction of Kai’s mirror-spawned curse being depicted as an obsession with “the perfection of numbers” is an interesting choice.  The little Robber Girl steals the show as I pretty much expected her to.  The depiction of the Snow Queen herself is interesting.  I was never able to completely get a bead on her.  I was never quite sure if she wanted to hurt Kai or thought she was helping him.  So, you can’t tell if she’s bad, misguided or something else.  Personally, I think that’s a good take on a character who’s supposed to be a force of nature personified.  My biggest problem was some of the earliest stuff in the show.  The rose that grows between Kai and Gerda’s windows was played by an actress rather than just a prop.  This makes sense in the later scene in the witch’s garden, but turning the rose into a character at this point just seems odd.  Also, the way that they handled the story of the troll’s mirror was a bit awkward.  The story gets told to Gerda and Kai by Gerda’s grandmother pretty much out of nowhere.  And when Kai gets pierced by the mirror shards, they depict his change in personality by having the Troll just show up and sing a song.  Then the troll just disappears for the rest of the show.  The songs were kind of hit-and-miss too.  Some were really good.  Others weren’t.
 My biggest problem was actually with the audience.  There were two people behind me who were cracking up over everything, even the parts that weren’t supposed to be funny.  I can only imagine that they were laughing at the production values, which I found extremely rude to not only the rest of the audience but also the performers.

So, would I recommend it?  Sure.  And I recommend going to see students perform it if you have the chance.  Even if it’s a little rough, you’ll be supporting budding performers and that’s certainly worthwhile.

Saturday, December 8, 2018

Fairy Tale Media Fix: Cinderella Monogatari


 Sometimes, adapting fairy tales into other forms can provide some unique challenges.  There are things like story structure and character to consider.  Also, the question of how to make such old stories resonate with modern audiences.

But here’s a challenge that probably doesn’t come up much: how do you turn a relatively short tale like “Cinderella” into a 26 episode cartoon series.  Interest piqued?  Good.

Cinderella Monogatari aka The Story of Cinderella aka Cinderella is a Japanese-Italian coproduction made by Tatsunoko Productions and Mondo TV.  It originally aired in 1996.
I know you all know the story of Cinderella, but humor me here.  There are a few differences.  The story follows a girl named Cinderella who is the daughter of a wealthy duke.  She also has a stepmother and two stepsisters named Jeanne and Catherine.  When the Duke leaves on a long business trip, the Stepmother immediately moves her own daughters into Cinderella’s room, banishes her to the attic and turns Cinderella into a servant in her own home.  The story generally follows Cinderella as she copes with her new situation.  Though, she does have some help.  Her fairy godmother Paulette works small feats of magic without Cinderella noticing to make her life a little easier.  She also has her animal friends Patch the dog, Pappy the bird and the two mice Bingo and Chuchu, who’ve all been enchanted by Paulette so that Cinderella can understand them when they talk, though no one else can.  She also makes friends with a young page from the castle named Charles, who is (you guessed it) secretly the prince in disguise.

Yeah, it’s a pretty common trope for Cinderella retellings now for her to meet the prince earlier and not know it’s him.  But you have to expect that with a version of Cinderella that goes for 26 half-hour episodes.
Cinderella and Charles the Fibber
 So, pretty much the entire series exists in the space between when Cinderella’s stepmother starts making her life miserable and when the royal ball is announced.  In all honesty, there was probably nowhere else to put it.  However, that space is filled with a lot of material.  There are many schemes by Cinderella’s stepmother to somehow marry either Jeanne or Catherine to the prince.  She meets all sorts of people like actors, circus performers and fortune tellers who become her friends.  She even encounters some magic, like a painter who can trap his subjects’ souls in his paintings and an enchanted forest.  There’s also another villain in the mix who makes things difficult.  Duke Zarel is a scheming courtier who wants to take the throne by either marrying the prince to his own daughter Isabelle or with just a good old fashioned coup.  Cinderella faces all this while getting closer to the boy she calls Charles the Fibber (she catches him in a lie early on).

It’s an entertaining enough show.  Nothing groundbreaking, really.  But some of the details are rather interesting.  For example, the character of Paulette, the Fairy Godmother (who’s depicted as sort of a wandering artist, by the way).  In one episode, we get a flashback to her friendship with Cinderella’s mother.  It’s something most people don’t really think about.  To be her godmother, at one point Cinderella’s parents had to have known her.  We don’t get to see how the two met.  Though, they both liked to paint.  We do get to see Paulette promise to look after Cinderella when Cinderella’s mother knew she was going to die.  In that same episode, we also see what seems like a riff on the Grimm version “Aschenputtel”, involving the spirit of Cinderella’s mother and a favorite tree.  Later, when the show finally gets around to the actual familiar part of the story, we see the glass slippers and are told they’re an heirloom from Cinderella’s mother.  It invests those shoes with even more emotional significance and explains why they don’t disappear with the rest of Paulette’s spell (admittedly, Ever After also did something like this).  Even beyond story elements, it can be interesting to see anime stylistic choices applied to a Western fairy tale.  For example, with lots of sparkles and a more abstract background than we usually see, Cinderella getting magically dressed up for the ball looks kind of like a really subdued magical girl transformation.
The Wicked Stepfamily
Not all of it is good.  Cinderella can seem a bit too passive for a lot of modern audiences.  Even when the show has the ability to remedy that, it doesn’t.  I remember one episode where Cinderella is worried about the safety of her home for various plot-related reasons.  So, she goes and asks Charles to teach her how to use a sword.  They have a little back-and-forth over it as they often do.  Then they change scenes and the next time we see them she’s thanking him for the lesson and him saying she was a very quick study.  That’s it.  They don’t show much of the training and they never even show her picking up a sword.  When Duke Zarel’s thugs do break into the house, she hides under the table and trips them as they go by.  Charles is the only one who engages in any swordplay.  Pretty much the only reason they had that scene that I can think of is as an excuse to put Cinderella in a silly Musketeer costume, which they do.

Now if you’re wondering when the actual “Cinderella” story actually happens, they cover the last three episodes.  Though, they also go a little farther to Cinderella’s wedding and another appearance by Duke Zarel.
Fairy Godmother Paulette posing for a painting class
Overall, this is a decent show.  Not a must see.  It gives the story a tweak rather than a full-on twist, but that’s not necessarily bad.  I’d suggest watching it, but you don’t have to give it undivided attention.  You can put it on while ironing or doing the dishes, etc. (Cinderella-like chores, basically).  It’s available on Amazon Instant Video now and I think it's included if you have a Prime membership.

I should warn you guys now though, this isn’t quite the end.  These people also made a Snow White show.  But that’s for another post.

See you next time.